The paper took the villages and towns around Chaohu Lake as the research area. ArcGIS was used to obtain the land use data of three periods, and Fragstats was used to analyze the changes of regional landscape pattern characteristics. Principal component analysis and grey relational analysis were used to explore the driving factors of land use landscape pattern changes. The results showed that: (1) Agricultural land, grassland land and construction land in chaohu lake area changed greatly from 2000 to 2020, and the proportion of agricultural land and grassland land in chaohu lake area increased significantly, while the water area and forest area remained stable. (2) From 2000 to 2020, land use landscape pattern in Chaohu Lake area changed significantly. The values of NP and PD were lower, while the values of AREA_MN and AI were higher, and the degree of regional landscape fragmentation decreased. SHDI and SHEI values decreased, and landscape pattern tended to be simplified. The LSI value was from 85.6862 to 57.7913, and the CONTAG value was from 42.3149 to 49.5843. The changes of regional landscape shape and sprawl showed reasonable development. (3) Annual average temperature, annual average water level, total population and total output value of secondary industry were the main driving factors affecting the change of land use landscape pattern around Chaohu Lake.