Understanding the status quo of cultivated land quality is the basis for improving the quality of cultivated land, and defining the limiting factor is the key to improving cultivated land. Using spatial autocorrelation analysis and obstacle degree model to reveal the status quo and spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated land quality in Qingyang County, identify the types of land block constraints and determine the difficulty of improvement, and on this basis, divide cultivated land quality grade improvement zones. The results show that: The quality grade of cultivated land in the study area was mainly in grades 4 ~ 6, showing the spatial distribution characteristics of high in the north and low in the south, and showing strong spatial correlation. The distribution area of cultivated land limited by terrain location and irrigation capacity is the largest, and the difficulty of improving the limiting factor is generally higher in the south and lower in the north. Based on the results of cultivated land quality evaluation and restriction factor diagnosis, the cultivated land in Qingyang County was divided into key promotion areas, comprehensive promotion areas, general promotion areas, protected promotion areas and restricted promotion areas, and the relevant strategies were proposed according to the characteristics of these areas. The research results can provide a basis for the focus and direction of the cultivated land quality improvement project.