云南农业大学学报(自然科学)
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云南农业大学学报(自然科学) 2017, Vol. 32 Issue (4) :718-726    DOI: 10.16211/j.issn.1004-390X(n).2017.04.022
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水土保持耕作措施的研究进展及展望
欧阳铖人, 吴伯志
云南农业大学 农学与生物技术学院, 云南 昆明 650201
A Review of Soil Conservation Practices on Uplands
OUYANG Chengren, WU Bozhi
College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China

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摘要 

水土流失是世界各国普遍存在的环境问题之一,严重威胁着农业的可持续发展。坡耕地是造成水土流失的主要策源地。然而,坡耕地是山区农业中重要的土地资源。如何有效地控制坡耕地水土流失的同时提高坡耕地的土地生产力,实现坡耕地农业可持续利用已成为社会各界关注的焦点。水土保持耕作措施是控制坡耕地水土流失的重要措施之一。该措施一是通过改变微地形增加降雨的入渗时间,削减径流流速及降低其挟沙能力,如等高耕作和垄作;二是增加覆盖度来减少雨滴的削弱作用,如间作和秸秆覆盖;三是改善土壤物理性质,增加土壤有机质,如免耕和深松耕。显然,水土保持耕作措施具有良好的蓄水保土效应,许多研究开始关注于这些措施控制水土流失的作用机制,尽管还不完全清楚。因此,本文综述了这些水土保持耕作措施控制水土流失的机制,探讨了这些措施在农业生产实践中存在的问题,对该措施在农业发展生产中应用提出了几点意见。

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欧阳铖人
吴伯志
关键词坡耕地   水土流失   水土保持耕作措施   农业生产     
Abstract

Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems, and presents a key challenge to agricultural sustainable development. The unreasonable sloping farmland is an important reason result in soil erosion. However, the sloping farmland is an important land resource. How to effectively control the soil erosion of sloping farmland and improve the land productivity of sloping land, are important. Soil and water conservation practice is one of the important measures to control soil erosion and increase land productivity in sloping farmland. There are three aspects to reduce soil erosion for soil and water conservation practice in sloping farmland. Firstly, the measure increases the infiltration time of rainfall and reduce runoff velocity by changing the surface topography, such as contour tillage and ridging. Secondly, the measure weakens the splash of raindrops by increasing coverage, such as intercropping and straw mulching. Thirdly, the measure increases soil organic matter by improving soil physical properties, such as no tillage and sub-soiling. Soil and water conservation practice plays a key role to reduce soil erosion and improve soil water content in sloping farmland. Most studies are mainly concentrated on the erosion mechanism of soil conservation practices although these mechanisms are not completely. Thus, the study summarized the reducing erosion mechanism of soil and water conservation practices and explored the currently problems of these practices in agriculture to prospect of the measure research in the future.

Keywordsarable land   soil erosion   soil conservation practices   agriculture     
Received 2017-03-07;
Fund:

高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(20125302110001);公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503119);云南省现代玉米产业体系(2016)。

Corresponding Authors: 吴伯志(1960-),男,云南玉溪人,博士,教授,主要从事作物栽培学与耕作学研究。E-mail:Bozhiwu@outlook.com     Email: Bozhiwu@outlook.com
About author: 欧阳铖人(1988-),男,云南南涧人,博士研究生,主要从事作物栽培与耕作学研究。E-mail:oycr6018@126.com
引用本文:   
欧阳铖人, 吴伯志.水土保持耕作措施的研究进展及展望[J]  云南农业大学学报(自然科学), 2017,V32(4): 718-726
OUYANG Chengren, WU Bozhi.A Review of Soil Conservation Practices on Uplands[J]  Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 2017,V32(4): 718-726
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