[Purpose] The objective of this study was to optimize tobacco leaves modulation technology and improve tobacco quality.[Method] The modulation test of tobacco leaves under anaerobic medium condition was used.[Result] (1) Compared with normal modulation method, the change of inorganic conventional chemical content of tobacco leaves was not obvious while the organic conventional chemical content is increase.(2) The content of polyphenols increased, and the volatile aroma components increased by 13.74% totally, in which β-damascenon and megastigmatrienone increased by 52.41% and 46.49%,respectively.(3) Modulated under anaerobic medium atmosphere could slow the decompose process of carotenoid constituent, and the content of lutein and β-carotene increased by 62.91% and 43.40% respectively.[Conclusion] Anaerobic medium atmosphere modulation method could reduce the loss of chemical composition which affects on the tobacco internal quality.