云南农业大学学报(自然科学)
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云南农业大学学报(自然科学) 2017, Vol. 32 Issue (1) :1-10    DOI: 10.16211/j.issn.1004-390X(n).2017.01.001
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禾谷胞囊线虫(Heterodera avenae)在北京小麦上的侵染和种群动态
刘树森, 赵建龙, Ahmed Shahid, 简恒
中国农业大学 植物病理系, 北京 100193
Population Dynamics and Infection of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Wheat in Beijing
LIU Shusen, ZHAO Jianlong, AHMED Shahid, JIAN Heng
Department of Plant Pathology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China

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摘要 

禾谷胞囊线虫(Heterodera avenae)是中国小麦生产的重要病原,造成小麦重大产量和经济损失。于2011—2012小麦生长季研究了北京地区禾谷胞囊线虫2龄幼虫的田间种群动态及侵染致病特征。结果表明:在小麦整个生长季内有2个2龄幼虫的孵化高峰。第1个小高峰出现在11月下旬,每100 mL土壤中最多可检测到105条2龄幼虫。而主要的孵化高峰出现在翌年春季的3月下旬—4月上旬,每100 mL土壤中最高可检测到295条2龄幼虫。秋季孵化的2龄幼虫能够侵染小麦并安全越冬,但春季孵化的2龄幼虫侵染更为严重,4月中旬平均每株小麦根系内可检测到230条幼虫。尽管禾谷胞囊线虫在1个生长季内可以侵染2次,但却只能发育形成1代成虫,至5月中旬平均每株小麦根系上雌虫数量可达287头。为了明确秋季侵染小麦的2龄幼虫来源,通过体外和体内试验检测了当季新形成胞囊的孵化和侵染潜力。结果表明:在4℃条件下保存100d的胞囊相比保存50d的胞囊能孵化出更多的2龄幼虫(P<0.05),而在室温保存50和100d的胞囊均不能孵化出2龄幼虫。此外,经过4℃预处理的胞囊在小麦越冬期即可孵化2龄幼虫并造成侵染,而室温保存的胞囊不具有侵染能力。说明了低温诱导对于禾谷胞囊线虫北京种群的孵化是必要的,而秋季小麦根系侵染可能是残留在土壤中2年以上的胞囊所致。本研究结果将有助于加深对禾谷胞囊线虫生物学和生态学的认识。

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刘树森
赵建龙
Ahmed Shahid
简恒
关键词禾谷胞囊线虫(Heterodera avenae)   2龄幼虫   种群动态   致病性     
Abstract

Cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae,is recognized as a highly destructive pathogen in wheat, causing serious yield and economic losses in China. During the wheat growing season of 2011-2012, population dynamics of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and pathogenicity of H. avenae were studied under natural field conditions in Beijing, China. Results indicated that the J2 population was bimodal during the wheat growing season. The first small peak of J2s appeared in late November with a maximum of 105 J2s/100 mL of soil. The main peak occurred in the following spring, from late March to early April, with a maximum of 295 J2s/100 mL of soil. The J2s hatched in the autumn were able to infect wheat roots and overwinter inside root system. However, J2s hatched in the spring season caused more severe infection with 230 juveniles/plant in the middle of April. Although the infection occurred twice in one growing season of wheat, only one cohort of adults were developed, resulted in an average of 287 females/plant in the middle of May. To determine the source of infective J2s in the autumn, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate the hatching and infection potential of newly produced cysts. The results showed that cysts incubated at 4℃ for 100 days produced more J2s than that of 50 d (P<0.05). There were no J2s hatched from the cysts kept at room temperature for 50 d and 100 d. Moreover, cysts pretreated at 4℃ could cause infection of wheat roots during winter, while cysts kept at room temperature failed to induce any infection. It is confirmed that cold temperature is necessary for the hatching of J2s from cysts isolated in Beijing. Root infection by H. avenae in the autumn was due to the residual cysts remained in soil for two or more years. These findings would help us to understand the biology and ecology of H. avenae.

KeywordsHeterodera avenae   second-stage juveniles (J2s)   population dynamics   pathogenicity     
Received 2015-12-31;
Fund:

国家重点基础研究项目(2013CB127501);公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费(201503114,200903040)。

Corresponding Authors: 简恒(1961-),四川资中人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事植物病原线虫研究。E-mail:hengjian@cau.edu.cn     Email: hengjian@cau.edu.cn
About author: 刘树森(1982-),河北献县人,博士研究生,主要从事作物胞囊线虫研究。E-mail:shusenliu@163.com
引用本文:   
刘树森, 赵建龙, Ahmed Shahid, 简恒.禾谷胞囊线虫(Heterodera avenae)在北京小麦上的侵染和种群动态[J]  云南农业大学学报(自然科学), 2017,V32(1): 1-10
LIU Shusen, ZHAO Jianlong, AHMED Shahid, JIAN Heng.Population Dynamics and Infection of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Wheat in Beijing[J]  Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 2017,V32(1): 1-10
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